white box testing

(This is also known as glass box, clear box, and open box testing.) In white box testing, you create test cases by looking at the code to detect any potential failure scenarios. You determine the suitable input data for testing various APIs and the special code paths that need to be tested by analyzing the source code for the application block. Therefore, the test plans need to be updated before starting white box testing and only after a stable build of the code is available.

A failure of a white box test may result in a change that requires all black box testing to be repeated and white box testing paths to be reviewed and possibly changed.

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black box testing

This approach tests all possible combinations of end-user actions. Black box testing assumes no knowledge of code and is intended to simulate the end-user experience. You can use sample applications to integrate and test the application block for black box testing. You can begin planning for black box testing immediately after the requirements and the functional specifications are available.

for a black box test you give it and input and compare it with the expected output e.g. when you make a user forum it should come out with and output of user created successfully.

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Types of programming Errors

SYNTAX-all programmes have a set of rules on what is and what is not allowed when forming a new line of code, just like grammar. for example when you want to display something on the screen, you put print(“display”). if you did not include the print or the ” then it would not work as its the wrong grammar

LOGIC-logic errors is when the code does not run in the way that it is meant to because of the way it was written.An example of a logic error would be if a programmer were to forget either an opening or closing bracket in front of or behind a mathematical expression while coding a calculator program.

RUN-TIME ERROR-When programming we use a language to speak to the computer. That language has syntax. If the rules of the syntax are broken, then the compiler complains and offers the term syntax error. In the same vein, all of the programming code that is written must be translated and compiled into something the computer can understand. If there are errors in that process the compiler complains and throws a compiler error. These errors are given types, numbers, and brief English explanations. They offer the engineer a way to debug their programs in an orderly fashion.

 

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Cache

Cache” is a specialized form of computer memory. In the case of Internet, “cache” is commonly used in the context of “browser cache”. Cache is designed to speed up the computer by prioritizing its contents for quick access.

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the Fetch-Execute cycle

The Fetch step:
This involves retrieving an instruction from a memory address. The address of the
instruction is stored in a register called the Program Counter (PC). After an instruction is
fetched, the PC is updated so the CPU knows the address of the next instruction it has to
fetch.

The Decode step:
This involves the CPU identifying the operation code (op-code) part of the instruction which
tells it which operation to perform. If the op-code requires the CPU to act on some data then
the second part of the instruction will contain either the data or the memory address where
the data is stored.

The Execute step:
The control unit links together the parts of the CPU that are needed to carry out (execute)
the instruction.

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CPU Special Registers

Instruction Register (IR): The instruction register holds the instruction currently being executed.

Memory Data Register (MDR): The memory data register (also known as the memory buffer register or data buffer) holds the piece of data that has been fetched from memory.

Memory Address Register (MAR): The memory address register holds the address of the next piece of memory to be fetched.

Program Counter (PC): The program counter holds the location of the next instruction to be fetched from memory. It is automatically incremented between supplying the address of the next instruction and the instruction being executed.

Accumulator: The accumulator is an internal CPU register used as the default location to store any calculations performed by the arithmetic and logic unit.

current instruction register (CIR)

control unit (CN)

central processing unit (CPU)

 

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Boolean – Not

False – false = True

True – True = False

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